Public Lectures

Luciano​ ​Maiani
Università ​ ​di​ ​Roma​ ​La​ ​Sapienza,​ ​Roma​ ​CERN,​ ​Ginevra
Elementary​ ​particles:​ ​the​ ​search​ ​for​ ​simplicity
The​ ​search​ ​of​ ​the​ ​last​ ​constituents​ ​of​ ​matter,​ ​the​ ​“Elementary​ ​Particles”,​ ​has​ ​fascinated​ ​mankind​ ​since​ ​the beginning​ ​of​ ​scientific​ ​thinking.​ ​Modern​ ​science​ ​has​ ​made​ ​impressive​ ​progresses,​ ​discovering​ ​a​ ​new​ ​level of​ ​reality​ ​beyond​ ​atoms​ ​and​ ​atomic​ ​nuclei:​ ​quarks,​ ​which​ ​make​ ​now​ ​part​ ​of​ ​our​ ​everyday​ ​language​ ​and​ ​of the​ ​collective​ ​imaginary.​ ​The​ ​discovery​ ​of​ ​the​ ​“Higgs​ ​boson”​ ​has​ ​marked​ ​the​ ​success​ ​of​ ​a​ ​description​ ​of physical​ ​reality​ ​based​ ​on​ ​elements​ ​of​ ​simplicity,​ ​unthinkable​ ​only​ ​fifty​ ​years​ ​ago.​ ​Along​ ​the​ ​way,​ ​we​ ​have discovered​ ​fascinating​ ​connections​ ​between​ ​the​ ​physics​ ​of​ ​Microcosm​ ​and​ ​the​ ​large​ ​scale​ ​structures, galaxies​ ​and​ ​clusters​ ​of​ ​galaxies,​ ​that​ ​have​ ​been​ ​formed​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Universe​ ​since​ ​primordial​ ​Big-Bang. There​ ​are​ ​still​ ​mysteries.​ ​Among​ ​them,​ ​the​ ​possible​ ​existence​ ​of​ ​new​ ​particles,​ ​to​ ​explain​ ​the non-luminous,​ ​dark​ ​matter​ ​gravitating​ ​around​ ​galaxies,​ ​that​ ​accounts​ ​for​ ​more​ ​than​ ​90%​ ​of​ ​the​ ​matter present​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Universe.​ ​To​ ​clarify​ ​this​ ​and​ ​other​ ​mysteries,​ ​powerful​ ​particle​ ​accelerators​ ​are​ ​planned,​ ​to reach​ ​energies​ ​of​ ​one​ ​order​ ​of​ ​magnitude​ ​larger​ ​than​ ​the​ ​energy​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Large​ ​Hadron​ ​Collider​ ​now​ ​working at​ ​CERN.

Title​ ​and​ ​abstract​ ​in​ ​Italian
Particelle​ ​Elementari:​ ​la​ ​ricerca​ ​della​ ​semplicità
La​ ​ricerca​ ​dei​ ​costituenti​ ​ultimi​ ​della​ ​materia,​ ​le​ ​“Particelle​ ​Elementari”,​ ​ha​ ​affascinato​ ​l’uomo​ ​fin​ ​dai​ ​primi passi​ ​del​ ​pensiero​ ​scientifico.​ ​La​ ​scienza​ ​moderna,​ ​nel​ ​Novecento,​ ​ha​ ​compiuto​ ​progressi​ ​straordinari scoprendo​ ​un​ ​nuovo​ ​livello​ ​del​ ​mondo​ ​reale,​ ​oltre​ ​l’atomo​ ​e​ ​il​ ​nucleo​ ​atomico:​ ​i​ ​quark,​ ​entrati​ ​ormai​ ​nel linguaggio​ ​di​ ​ogni​ ​giorno​ ​e​ ​nell’immaginario​ ​collettivo.​ ​La​ ​scoperta​ ​del​ ​“bosone​ ​di​ ​Higgs”​ ​ha​ ​sancito​ ​il successo​ ​di​ ​una​ ​descrizione​ ​della​ ​realtà​ ​fisica​ ​basata​ ​su​ ​elementi​ ​di​ ​semplicità​ ​impensabili​ ​solo cinquant’anni​ ​fa.​ ​Lungo​ ​questo​ ​percorso,​ ​si​ ​scoprono​ ​affascinanti​ ​relazioni​ ​tra​ ​la​ ​fisica​ ​del​ ​Microcosmo​ ​e le​ ​strutture​ ​su​ ​grande​ ​scala​ ​che​ ​si​ ​sono​ ​formate,​ ​nell'Universo,​ ​a​ ​partire​ ​dal​ ​Big​ ​Bang​ ​iniziale. Ci​ ​sono​ ​ancora​ ​importanti​ ​misteri.​ ​Tra​ ​questi,​ ​la​ ​possibile​ ​esistenza​ ​di​ ​nuove​ ​particelle​ ​che​ ​potrebbero essere​ ​la​ ​chiave​ ​della​ ​materia​ ​non​ ​luminosa​ ​che​ ​gravita​ ​intorno​ ​alle​ ​Galassie​ ​e​ ​rende​ ​conto​ ​di​ ​più​ ​del​ ​90% della​ ​materia​ ​esistente​ ​nell’Universo.​ ​Per​ ​chiarire​ ​i​ ​misteri,​ ​sono​ ​allo​ ​studio​ ​nuove​ ​macchine​ ​con​ ​energie superiori​ ​di​ ​un​ ​ordine​ ​di​ ​grandezza​ ​all’energia​ ​della​ ​macchina​ ​del​ ​CERN.
Giorgio​ ​Vallortigara
Centre​ ​for​ ​Mind/Brain​ ​Science,​ ​University​ ​of​ ​Trento
The​ ​Sense​ ​of​ ​Number
Evolutionary origins and neurobiology
The​ ​abilities​ ​to​ ​deal​ ​with​ ​non-verbal​ ​and​ ​non-symbolic​ ​aspects​ ​of​ ​numerousness​ ​by​ ​an​ ​approximate number​ ​system​ ​(or​ ​“number​ ​sense”)​ ​are​ ​evolutionarily​ ​ancient,​ ​and​ ​they​ ​can​ ​be​ ​investigated​ ​from​ ​a comparative​ ​perspective.​ ​I​ ​shall​ ​discuss​ ​here​ ​evidence​ ​in​ ​non-human​ ​animals​ ​and​ ​human​ ​infants​ ​showing precocious​ ​abilities​ ​to​ ​represent​ ​the​ ​cardinal​ ​and​ ​ordinal​ ​aspects​ ​of​ ​numerical​ ​cognition,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as arithmetic​ ​operations.​ ​Furthermore,​ ​non-human​ ​animals​ ​and​ ​human​ ​infants​ ​appear​ ​to​ ​associate​ ​smaller numbers​ ​with​ ​the​ ​left​ ​space​ ​and​ ​larger​ ​numbers​ ​with​ ​the​ ​right​ ​space,​ ​mapping​ ​numbers​ ​to​ ​space​ ​in​ ​a​ ​way that​ ​resembles​ ​adult​ ​human​ ​mental​ ​number​ ​line.​ ​These​ ​abilities​ ​are​ ​observed​ ​very​ ​early​ ​in​ ​development and​ ​in​ ​the​ ​absence​ ​(or​ ​with​ ​very​ ​reduced)​ ​experience,​ ​thus​ ​supporting​ ​a​ ​nativistic​ ​foundation​ ​of non-symbolic​ ​numerical​ ​cognition.

Title​ ​and​ ​abstract​ ​in​ ​Italian
I​l​ ​Senso​ ​del​ ​Numero
Origini​ ​evolutive​ ​e​ ​basi​ ​neurobiologiche
Quali​ ​sono​ ​le​ ​basi​ ​neurobiologiche​ ​della​ ​nostra​ ​conoscenza​ ​del​ ​numero?​ ​Sottostanti​ ​le​ ​capacità matematiche​ ​simboliche​ ​e​ ​discrete​ ​che​ ​si​ ​sono​ ​sviluppate​ ​in​ ​alcune​ ​società​ ​umane,​ ​giacciono,​ ​incarnate nell’attività​ ​dei​ ​sistemi​ ​nervosi,​ ​le​ ​radici​ ​non-simboliche​ ​della​ ​rappresentazione​ ​della​ ​numerosità.​ ​Basate sulla​ ​stima​ ​della​ ​quantità​ ​e​ ​sul​ ​continuo,​ ​esse​ ​sono​ ​osservabili​ ​anche​ ​nelle​ ​creature​ ​prive​ ​di​ ​linguaggio simbolico,​ ​i​ ​bambini​ ​più​ ​piccoli​ ​e​ ​gli​ ​animali​ ​non​ ​umani.